|Fulton County, New York
|Old County Jail
THE EVOLUTION OF A COUNTY
Provided by Fulton County Historian:
William G. Loveday, Jr.
In the beginning, the land, and especially the northern land, of our present Fulton County evolved
from the violent upheaval of the earth in the form of lofty mountains. Then followed the extended
glacial period when these high mountains were worn down, their earth redistributed, and beautiful
valleys and riverbeds scoured out by the moving glaciers.
Then came the forest growth and the abundance of wildlife which freely roamed this area. Soon,
early Native Americans entered this pristine picture and found our area to their liking for hunting
and fishing grounds. Eventually, these early native tribes joined together along the fertile
Mohawk Valley just to our south and formed the Iroquois Confederacy. The Mohawk Nation
acted as "Keepers of the Eastern Gate" for this powerful Confederacy and continued to rely on
this northern area as a source for their food and clothing supply.
The first European influence arrived on our shores in the early 1600's with the arrival of the Dutch
who promptly named all of the area to the north New Netherlands. They soon spread their
influence up the Hudson River and west along the Mohawk River until 1664 when the British took
over the Dutch lands and renamed them New York after the Duke of York.
In the early 1700's, the German Palatines started to arrive and actually became the first settlers
of today's Fulton County. They and their Dutch neighbors tilled the rich soil of the Palatine region
in our western regions.
Just prior to 1760, Sir William Johnson, the Crown's Indian Agent and Baronet, started recruiting
immigrants to settle the lands which he had acquired. These mostly Scottish immigrants
became the nucleus of today's city and Town of Johnstown near the manor which he had built in
1762 and named Johnson Hall.
John's Town, named after his son, and the surrounding area, flourished until 1772 at which time
Johnson petitioned the Provincial Assembly in Albany to have the huge Albany County, which had
been formed in 1683, broken up so that Johnstown could become the county seat of a new local
county and thereby have it's own convenient courthouse, jail and local administration. Because
of Sir William Johnson's widespread influence, this was approved and our Fulton County area
became a part of the still large but new Tryon County, named after the New York Colonial
Governor William Tryon. A small Albany County remained and Charlotte County was formed in
the Champlain-Vermont area.
This new Tryon County stretched from the western boundaries of the now much smaller Albany
County west to the Canandaigua Treaty Line of 1768 near Rome, NY, north to the Canadian
Border and south to the Pennsylvania line.
Tryon County remained so named until 1784 when the now onerous British name of Tryon was
changed to Montgomery County, named after Gen. Richard Montgomery who was one of our first
heroes of the War, killed while attacking Quebec. Many of our local men served with
Montgomery and knew and respected him as a leader.
The Montgomery County seat remained at Johnstown and now the county stretched all the way
west to the Great Lakes.
As western migration took place, this large Montgomery County soon became sub-divided into
new counties with their own county seats. Further, the operation of the new Erie Canal and the
building of new roads along the river attracted new settlements to the Mohawk Valley and
population growth soared in that area of the county south and southwest of Johnstown.
Because of this shift in the population center, the people in the Mohawk Valley area petitioned
the NY State Legislature to have the county seat of Montgomery County transferred to Fonda.
This was approved in 1836.
This move generated a great deal of dissatisfaction in the northern part of Montgomery County
and soon a petition was made to the NY Legislature by a group led by Judge Daniel Cady of
Johnstown to have the county divided into two counties. On April 18, 1838, this request was
approved and the northern half of the divided county was named Fulton County after Robert
Fulton of steamship and Erie Canal fame and Johnstown once again became a county seat.
After a few internal Town boundary changes and divisions, Fulton County was formed as you see
Today, Fulton County maintains the oldest courthouse in NY State and one of the oldest in the
country still being used for court proceedings. We have many interesting historic sites, led by
Johnson Hall, and are rich in other early history as well.
Fulton County is also a growing Mecca for tourists interested in outdoor activities such as
hunting, fishing, boating, skiing, swimming, etc. Our Recreational Rail Trail is nearing completion
and will soon connect with other trails throughout the Mohawk Valley.
We are still proud of our rich farmlands, friendly cities and villages, industries and heritage.
Fulton County has a proud past and a promising future.
|Evolution of a County